Act of Banishment

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Stanedge Pole graffiti

1697 and the Act of Banishment that banished all Roman Catholic priests from Ireland. The Roman Catholic church, persecuted went underground, held secret services, and communicated in secret code. Being found in possession of Catholic material could lead to death almost certain if you were of the church and holding communion. The Padley Chapel Martyrs, two Catholic Priests were hung drawn and quartered for holding a Catholic service.

Banishment in 1697 was a much a political as religious statement. Acts of defiance often took the form of secret codes and messages. The conjoined ‘V’ inverted often stood for the Virgin Mary and denoted Catholic presence. On Stanedge Pole this graffiti with the inverted ‘V’ making an ‘M’ underneath the date 1697 could possibly have been an act of defiance against the Church of England and the Crown.

Dangerous things to be doing and a painful death if found.

Grouse Water Bowls

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Grouse Water Bowl No.8 on Stanage Edge

I had a wonderful walk recently up onto gritstone edges then home across moorland, no more than 8 miles with less than 200m of ascent over the whole route, this gentle saunter gave me time to appreciate a unique aspect of this particular landscape.

Alison dropped me at Moscar on a Snake road cloaked in low cloud so that I could get easy access onto Stanage Edge. This is the easiest way in, with little ascent and a good view across the Moscar moor to Derwent Edge and Win Hill to keep the eyes occupied. I got on to the Edge by the old quarry, passing the boundary stones marking Mr Wilson and Mr Mappin land ownership. Didn’t they trust each other I wondered, Stanage Edge is a pretty obvious boundary line surely.

By the old quarry are some fine grouse water bowls, carved by George Broomhead, no relation of the Wilsons of Broomhead Hall, who are no relations of the Wilsons of Moscar Moor who didn’t have a hall but did have and to my knowledge still have a snuff mill in Sheffield. Wilson, the snuff one, had young George carve out great long lines of these bowls to, it is said, provide water for the parched grouse that were the moors only inhabitant. They say there are 108 of them, how long it took I don’t know. These are little works of art in a way. Beautiful bowls of all shapes and sizes carved into the gritstone boulders of Stanage Edge and the moor beyond. Each bowl has one or more runnels, exquisitely chased into the stone to channel water into the small reservoirs. The skill to produce these flat-bottomed ‘Vees’ and the lozenge-shaped bowls is evident to see. What is not so apparent is the choice of boulder and the position of the bowl. George Broomhead must have watched during downpours to see which would be most efficient at collecting the water, for these are not like the dewponds of the White Peak, these rely on rain water. And then have worked out the best position and shape of the collecting bowl and where to position the feeder runnels.

Each bowl is numbered, although these are not consecutive so I suspect the whole were not completed in one go, but in stages as the moor was developed for grouse. As yet I have not found one that bears Georges name or initials or that of his employer, but I live in hope.  Many of the ones away from the edge are overgrown with heather and moss, making it difficult to locate them, which all adds to the day out, a bit of detective work and a frisson of excitement at a find. I have spent a good few hours in such activity and as a consequence have covered the moor more deeply than I would normally, which has brought other delights too.

 

Sentinels of the Dark Peak

Howden Clough in autumn, and the Derwent Valley Water Board marker post by the little reservoir. A wonderful spot and a good way up on to Howden Edge. Did you know there are three places called Howden Edge in that part of the Peak. Could be confusing if you arrange to meet someone.

It is a lovely walk from the east track of Howden Reservoir, up through Clough Wood which is all oak and beech and in autumn sun dappled leaf motifs project onto the woodland floor which makes me slow down, and turn this way and that. I like to stop at the gate that leads in to the Clough, often if I am lucky I see Mountain Hare still in summer coat working away between Howden and Stony Bank Cloughs. Lepus Timidus to my mind is the true owner of these moors, the great icon of the Dark Peak. When one joins me on a walk, which they often do, it is such a joy, such a privilege to have their company.

No sooner have you left the woodland, you are presented with a small reservoir and dam, which seems odd, up here, when there is the great Howden Reservoir below which this flows into. By the side of the track and often overlooked is a small post bearing the letters DVWB, Derwent Valley Water Board. It is beautifully made, a small piece of craftsmanship in this wild place. To the touch it is a pleasure, its surface soft and smooth and cold to the fingers. Someone took time to design this insignificant object, to give its edges a radius so that when you run your hand over it there is no sharpness. And when it had been cast, someone took time to finish it as if it would be on show in the most prestigious of public places. But it isn’t, it’s here on the moor with the Mountain Hare, sentinels of the Dark Peak.

 

A days shoot on Howden Moor

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Howden Moor 1852 
REPRODUCED WITH THE PERMISSION OF THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF SCOTLAND HTTP://MAPS.NLS.UK/INDEX.HTML

From the Sheffield Times 1858

Sheffield Times

November 21st 1858

Mr T Colley, landlord of the Bluebell Inn, was in the middle of the days shoot on the Duke of Norfolk’s moor. A Gamekeeper handed him a gun and pointed to a wild d on one of the lakes as a target. Mr Colley went up a rising piece of ground in order to get a better shot. The duck appeared to have risen, and, just as he fired, something appeared to leap out of the lake and was shot. On it being obtained, it proved to be a large pike. But this was not all, for on firing Mr Colley was knocked backwards by the rebound of the gun, which knocked him over and he rolled down the hill. He was so stunned that he had to be lifted to his feet by his friends, and in doing so found that he had crushed a hare to death and had thus made on of the most extraordinary shots ever recorded. The duck, the pike, the hare have been stuffed and placed in a box which is at present on show at the Bluebell Inn. The Duke of Norfolk on hearing the story sent Mr Colley a brace of grouse.

A 16th century perambulation

 

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The CP96 boundary rock at Broadrake, near High Neb on Stanage Edge

The other day I came across a rock on Stanage Edge and carved into the rock were the letters CP and the numbers 96. It looked quite old and got me to thinking what it all meant. Bill from the Peak District National Park, who knows more about this area than anyone I guess, provided a map from 1723 showing the rock and carvings marked on it, suggesting it marked a Civil and Parish Boundary. So I did a little digging in the bowels of various archives and came up with a perambulation, which is a legal walk to maintain the boundary of land.

 Extract from a perambulation made in 1574

A Boundarie, or brief notes, of all the Meares and Bounds of Hallamshire between Whytley Wood and a place called Waynstones, namely between the Lord’s lands pf Hallamshire and the Lords of Ecclesale and Hathersage, beeinge overviewed and seene the sixt day of August Anno Dei one thousand fyve hundreth and seaventy and fower, by these men whose names are here underwritten:

 “Viz. Anthony BLYTHE of Birchett, gent., James TURNER, Bealife of Sheffeld, William DICKINSON, William UPTON, Thurstone KIRKE, William HARRISE, George SKARGELL, Adam GILL, Ralphe MORTON, Gregorie REVELL …

 On the 6th August 1574 9 men walked along the boundary of the Lordships of Hallamshire and that of Ecclesale and Hathersedge to check the boundary markers and defining the dividing line of their masters lands.

Meares (meares, old English earlier than 900AD, possibly from the Norse mæri, which would fit with the area being a Wapentac, meaning boundary between two lands).

A perambulation was a requirement in traditional English Law and means Walking Around. Specifically, walking around the boundaries of a parish or legal area, to maintain its legal status and ownership.

The walk started at Whitely Woods and worked its way across Ringinglow before starting its traverse of Stanage Edge from Burbage Head, which today could possibly be Upper Burbage Bridge.

 

[Burbage Head. Item, the said Sicke or Ditch leading or goeing from Ringinge Lawe to a place called Burbage Head which is a Meere between my Lord of Hallamshire and the heirs of Padley and the lord of Hathersage.]

Could the way today be from Ringinglow at the Toll House, joining Houndkirk and following that, to what is today the footpath that leads over to the Packhorse Bridge crossing Burbage Brook. The Brook being the “Sicke or Ditch” leading to Burbage Head. Certainly it would be a natural division of the land between two owners. But then why not just walk along the top of Burbage Rocks and not descend into the valley at all.

[Hurklinge Edge. Item, from the said Burbage Head to a certain place called Hurklinge Edge, being a mere between Hallamshire and the Lordship of Hathersage.]

There is no Hurklinge Edge in this area on any maps going back to 1852. This could be an erroneous naming of the place or it may well have changed. From the description it would seem a possible route would be from Upper Burbage Bridge up onto the moor and follow Friars Ridge across to what today is Stanedge Pole. Friars Ridge today is a Metropolitan Boundary between Yorkshire and Derbyshire, it is also a natural watershed and leads from the east to Stanedge Pole and the Long Causeway.

 [Stannedge. Item, from the said Hurklinge Edge as forwards after the Rocke to Stannage which is a mere between the said Lordshipps.]

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The Surveyors date 1697 clearly visible on the Rocke at Stanedge on the Long Causeway

From Friars Edge to the Rocke is this the present day Stanedge Pole. There are certainly large rocks there and it would have been a well-known marker. The rocks have many surveyor markings carved into their surface included one dated 1697 which may be useful in dating the next boundary rock. In the 1852 survey it was marked on the map as Rock. By 1880 the surveyors were calling it Stanage Pole.

The Parliamentary and Municipal Boundaries run right through it, and if they followed the boundary of Hallamshire and Ecclesale, then marking the boundaries would have necessitated visiting this spot. Their route then progressed on to Stannedge. Probably following the Long Causeway to where it starts its descent to Hathersage the route eventually meeting what we now know today as Stanage Edge.

 [Broad Rake. Item, from Stannedge, after the said Rocke to a place called the Broad Rake, which is also a meere betweene the said Lordships of Hallamshire and Hathersedge.]

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The 1723 map clearly showing the CP96 rock at Broadrake

From where the Long Causeway descends they would have followed the edge along until they came to the second “Rock” which has a simple carving of “CP96”. A recent map sent to me dated 1723 shows the rock and the carving along with the name Broadrake, so it predates that. There is a date carved into the Stanedge Pole rock of 1697 so the second boundary rock predates that it may well be 1696 or even 1596 as this walk took place in 1574. The rock sits inland from the edge path but quite close to it so would have been a prominent marker. Is the “CP” Civil Parish or is it County Parliamentary?

 [Seaven Stones. Item, from the Broad Rake streight downward to a place where certain stones are sett upon the ends haveinge marks in them called Seaven Stones, which old and ancient men said that the same is a meere betweene my Lord and the Lord of Hathersedge.]

Are the “Seaven Stones” the stone circle on Bamford Moor. There are seven standing stones, maybe more depending on how you define a standing stone. There is no mention of the Old Womans Stone so either I have the wrong route or the Menhir was not standing at that time. There is a Civil Parish boundary running close by on todays maps.

Or are the “Seaven Stones” the stone circle on Moscar Moor? But these have 9 stones or 10 depending on how you count.

[Waynstones. Item, from the said Seaven Stones streight over the Brooke or Sicke there to a place called the Waynstones, being distant by estimacion three quarters of a myle.]

The next and final legs of the route present a problem. What and where are “Waynstones”. The brook could be the one by the standing stone on Bamford Edge, Upper Hurst Brook, and it does follow a boundary line, but where is Waynstones . Is it where the quarry now exists on the end of Bamford Edge, the next leg also talks of going straight over the edge so perhaps this is the place.

The other option is Ladybower Brook from the Stone Circle on Moscar Moor and “Waynstones” is Whinstone Lee Tor. The only difficulty with this is the distance which is more than ¾ of a mile, but it does still follow the County and Parliamentary boundary on the 1891 map, which leads up from Cutthroat Bridge. Interestingly there is a Hurkling Stones near by, could this be the same as mentioned earlier in the route and they have just forgotten where it was.

[North Waynstones. Item, from the said Waynstones streight over the Edge to a place, or certain stone, called the North Waynstones.]

Finally where is North Waynstones which is reached by going straight over the edge to a place or certain stone called North Waynstones. Is this Wheel Stones and “streight over the edge” means straight along the edge. That would fit.

It would be interesting how the walk fits in todays landscape and mapping.