Living within the landscape

The Long Causeway on Stanage Edge. Peak District
The Long Causeway on Stanage Edge. Peak District

I spent time walking up and down a 580m length of the Long Causeway last week. I wanted to get a feel for the old packhorse route, to see if today there was any resonance of the past, any connection that placed me in the same sense of being there as someone two hundred years ago.

The section between Stanage Pole and the junction with the bridleway from Stanage Plantation is still beautifully paved with the original stone setts. The setts have a concave surface, worn by hundreds of years of cartwheels as they trundled between Sheffield and Hathersage. The causeway is a strong feature in the landscape, a line placed by human hand but perhaps following thousands of feet before.

Stanedge Pole graffiti. Dark Peak. Peak District National Park
Stanedge Pole with the inverted VM for Virgin Mary

Stanage pole bears the mark of the Virgin Mary, VM, a signifier of a place of worship by the Roman Catholic community who in the time of the reformation sought out of the way places to practice their faith. Three and a half miles directly south as the crow flies sits Padley Chapel where priests were found celebrating mass. For their pains, they were hanged, drawn and quartered at Derby. Directly north of Stanage Pole is said to be the place where the Catholics worshipped, a rock. It has yet to be found. So there is much that resonates in the surroundings.

The line of the causeway must have been surveyed for

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The boundary stone marking the edge of Hallamshire and Yorkshire today.

the setts form perfect lines running slightly off an east-west axis away from the boundary of Yorkshire and Derbyshire, Mercia and Northumbria. The same boundary exists today, has existed for hundreds if not thousands of years and much nearer to our own time. A little further along Stanage Edge is a stone bearing the markings, CP96, a boundary stone that had to be beaten during the annual perambulation by the great and good of the Lordship of Hallamshire accompanied by members of the church. They would have first called at Stanage Pole, beaten the rock with their sticks, said prayers then moved on along the line of the Long Causeway to the rock sits near High Neb. It is a route thousands of people walk today, perhaps we never walk anywhere new, but are guided by unseen ancient hands.

 

So as I stand there thinking all this and looking, walking back and forth along the stone way I wonder if people back then thought someone in the future would be trying to touch their existence. I wonder if in two thousand years time someone will try and touch my thoughts and feelings that day. UNADJUSTEDNONRAW_thumb_88b7I headed back east towards the pole and my eye was caught by a small homemade plaque screwed to a fence post. It was beautiful in its simplicity. A memorial to John Hartle facing south-west over Stanage Edge. A modern-day signifier of who had gone before me. I wondered who he was, a runner perhaps, maybe a walker. Why in this age of data and information do we know so much about the past yet so little about today?

Is this an indication of our disconnect with the landscape or our relationship with it that defines it as an amenity to be used and enjoyed at our will. Did the Mercians, Catholic, burghers of Hallamshire view it in much the same way? Is this the connection I have been looking for or have I missed the one I truly wanted, not the people who used the Long Causeway but those who made it?

 

 

The Buck Stone – Stanage Edge

The Buck Stone below Stanage Edge, Peak District National Park
The Buck Stone below Stanage Edge

This is the Buck Stone below Stanage Edge in the Peak District National Park. It stands within its own walled enclosure, a little way down from the Long Causeway that rises up to the top of Stanage Edge from Dennis Knoll.

This large boulder was once used as a sort of transport cafe for the packhorse trains that used the Long Causeway to deliver goods to and from Sheffield. The holes in the boulder were sockets for a primitive timber shelter and around the boulder are runnels, grooves chiselled into the surface that deflected rain water away from the structure. The trains used to stop here, the walled enclosure useful for holding the ponies, whilst the Jagger, the man who guided the packhorse train, would take in refreshment and rest.

The boulder is often ignored now, being off the beaten track, but its past is of importance tot he trade routes that criss crossed the area. It has some nice bouldering problems, quite easy even for old people like me. There is a reward at the top, but I will leave it for you to find out for yourself.

The Buck Stone appears in Walk No. 6 in Dark Peak Walks published by Cicerone Press

A 16th century perambulation

 

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The CP96 boundary rock at Broadrake, near High Neb on Stanage Edge

The other day I came across a rock on Stanage Edge and carved into the rock were the letters CP and the numbers 96. It looked quite old and got me to thinking what it all meant. Bill from the Peak District National Park, who knows more about this area than anyone I guess, provided a map from 1723 showing the rock and carvings marked on it, suggesting it marked a Civil and Parish Boundary. So I did a little digging in the bowels of various archives and came up with a perambulation, which is a legal walk to maintain the boundary of land.

 Extract from a perambulation made in 1574

A Boundarie, or brief notes, of all the Meares and Bounds of Hallamshire between Whytley Wood and a place called Waynstones, namely between the Lord’s lands pf Hallamshire and the Lords of Ecclesale and Hathersage, beeinge overviewed and seene the sixt day of August Anno Dei one thousand fyve hundreth and seaventy and fower, by these men whose names are here underwritten:

 “Viz. Anthony BLYTHE of Birchett, gent., James TURNER, Bealife of Sheffeld, William DICKINSON, William UPTON, Thurstone KIRKE, William HARRISE, George SKARGELL, Adam GILL, Ralphe MORTON, Gregorie REVELL …

 On the 6th August 1574 9 men walked along the boundary of the Lordships of Hallamshire and that of Ecclesale and Hathersedge to check the boundary markers and defining the dividing line of their masters lands.

Meares (meares, old English earlier than 900AD, possibly from the Norse mæri, which would fit with the area being a Wapentac, meaning boundary between two lands).

A perambulation was a requirement in traditional English Law and means Walking Around. Specifically, walking around the boundaries of a parish or legal area, to maintain its legal status and ownership.

The walk started at Whitely Woods and worked its way across Ringinglow before starting its traverse of Stanage Edge from Burbage Head, which today could possibly be Upper Burbage Bridge.

 

[Burbage Head. Item, the said Sicke or Ditch leading or goeing from Ringinge Lawe to a place called Burbage Head which is a Meere between my Lord of Hallamshire and the heirs of Padley and the lord of Hathersage.]

Could the way today be from Ringinglow at the Toll House, joining Houndkirk and following that, to what is today the footpath that leads over to the Packhorse Bridge crossing Burbage Brook. The Brook being the “Sicke or Ditch” leading to Burbage Head. Certainly it would be a natural division of the land between two owners. But then why not just walk along the top of Burbage Rocks and not descend into the valley at all.

[Hurklinge Edge. Item, from the said Burbage Head to a certain place called Hurklinge Edge, being a mere between Hallamshire and the Lordship of Hathersage.]

There is no Hurklinge Edge in this area on any maps going back to 1852. This could be an erroneous naming of the place or it may well have changed. From the description it would seem a possible route would be from Upper Burbage Bridge up onto the moor and follow Friars Ridge across to what today is Stanedge Pole. Friars Ridge today is a Metropolitan Boundary between Yorkshire and Derbyshire, it is also a natural watershed and leads from the east to Stanedge Pole and the Long Causeway.

 [Stannedge. Item, from the said Hurklinge Edge as forwards after the Rocke to Stannage which is a mere between the said Lordshipps.]

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The Surveyors date 1697 clearly visible on the Rocke at Stanedge on the Long Causeway

From Friars Edge to the Rocke is this the present day Stanedge Pole. There are certainly large rocks there and it would have been a well-known marker. The rocks have many surveyor markings carved into their surface included one dated 1697 which may be useful in dating the next boundary rock. In the 1852 survey it was marked on the map as Rock. By 1880 the surveyors were calling it Stanage Pole.

The Parliamentary and Municipal Boundaries run right through it, and if they followed the boundary of Hallamshire and Ecclesale, then marking the boundaries would have necessitated visiting this spot. Their route then progressed on to Stannedge. Probably following the Long Causeway to where it starts its descent to Hathersage the route eventually meeting what we now know today as Stanage Edge.

 [Broad Rake. Item, from Stannedge, after the said Rocke to a place called the Broad Rake, which is also a meere betweene the said Lordships of Hallamshire and Hathersedge.]

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The 1723 map clearly showing the CP96 rock at Broadrake

From where the Long Causeway descends they would have followed the edge along until they came to the second “Rock” which has a simple carving of “CP96”. A recent map sent to me dated 1723 shows the rock and the carving along with the name Broadrake, so it predates that. There is a date carved into the Stanedge Pole rock of 1697 so the second boundary rock predates that it may well be 1696 or even 1596 as this walk took place in 1574. The rock sits inland from the edge path but quite close to it so would have been a prominent marker. Is the “CP” Civil Parish or is it County Parliamentary?

 [Seaven Stones. Item, from the Broad Rake streight downward to a place where certain stones are sett upon the ends haveinge marks in them called Seaven Stones, which old and ancient men said that the same is a meere betweene my Lord and the Lord of Hathersedge.]

Are the “Seaven Stones” the stone circle on Bamford Moor. There are seven standing stones, maybe more depending on how you define a standing stone. There is no mention of the Old Womans Stone so either I have the wrong route or the Menhir was not standing at that time. There is a Civil Parish boundary running close by on todays maps.

Or are the “Seaven Stones” the stone circle on Moscar Moor? But these have 9 stones or 10 depending on how you count.

[Waynstones. Item, from the said Seaven Stones streight over the Brooke or Sicke there to a place called the Waynstones, being distant by estimacion three quarters of a myle.]

The next and final legs of the route present a problem. What and where are “Waynstones”. The brook could be the one by the standing stone on Bamford Edge, Upper Hurst Brook, and it does follow a boundary line, but where is Waynstones . Is it where the quarry now exists on the end of Bamford Edge, the next leg also talks of going straight over the edge so perhaps this is the place.

The other option is Ladybower Brook from the Stone Circle on Moscar Moor and “Waynstones” is Whinstone Lee Tor. The only difficulty with this is the distance which is more than ¾ of a mile, but it does still follow the County and Parliamentary boundary on the 1891 map, which leads up from Cutthroat Bridge. Interestingly there is a Hurkling Stones near by, could this be the same as mentioned earlier in the route and they have just forgotten where it was.

[North Waynstones. Item, from the said Waynstones streight over the Edge to a place, or certain stone, called the North Waynstones.]

Finally where is North Waynstones which is reached by going straight over the edge to a place or certain stone called North Waynstones. Is this Wheel Stones and “streight over the edge” means straight along the edge. That would fit.

It would be interesting how the walk fits in todays landscape and mapping.

Trigpoint Walks 1

Stanage Pole Trig Point
Stanage Pole Trig Point

For some reason, I could not tell you why it is so please don’t ask, often I like to have a purpose to a walk. Its a simple mechanism I use of getting from A-B by convincing myself that there is a higher motive, than merely spending hours away from society, that feels like skivving and my working class upbringing definitely did not condone skivving.

So this year, 2014, I have concocted a ruse to get me out and about without the concomitant guilt. I will attempt to walk to every trig point in the Peak District National Park and surrounding areas. Don’t ask me how many there are, I have no idea, but if you do know then please get in touch. Whilst doing this I can also get fitter, I need that for sure, practice my navigation, feature spotting and route planning for my Mountain Leadership training, and learn a lot more about the Peak District especially areas I have never visited. It will also be enjoyable.

So here are the rules:

1. The trig points must be in the Peak District National Park

2. There must be a least three trig points on a route. Three is the minimum number for triangulation, but you already knew that.

3. A photo of the pillar and the benchmark plate must be taken, even if I am being chased by a cow, or wallaby.

4. All trig points must have been visited by the end of the year!

That’s it, pretty simple.

My first day out was on Thursday 16th January. A simple walk almost from my front door, taking in four trig points with a total of twenty kilometers of walking and five hundred and seventy meters of total ascent. The route would cross common lands, industrial relics, old track ways and turnpikes, grouse moorland, Victorian engineering works and the home of British Climbing. Not bad for a day’s walking.

Trig pillar number 1

(Loxley Common Triangulation Pillar SK 30969 90690 Altitude 239m.  Benchmark plate number 11505)

The pillar stands amidst old quarry workings and gannister mines. The quarrying was for Derbyshire Gritstone to build walls and buildings. Gannister mines produced “Ganni” a clay like substance used in the manufacture of furnace linings for the steel and glass industry that surrounded Sheffield.

Setting south from this trig, via a series of old Gannister factories and villages now quiet but once were thriving industrial mining centres, decanted me on to the old Sheffield to Manchester Road, long forgotten and abandoned in places for the Snake Road that runs along the valley floor.

From this road a track runs to the right up onto the high moorland above Sheffield. Leaving the track and heading for the corner of a private cemetery, I never knew such a thing existed, I came to the second trig point on Rod Moor.

Trig pillar number 2

(Rod Moor Triangulation Pillar SK 2626 8841 Altitude 384m. Benchmark S2299)

This trig point is clearly not so frequented as others, despite a very well made shooting track taking you to within a hundred meters or so. I have to admit though that the trig is a rather secondary attraction. The main being a large sign telling you to keep out of the walled cemetery on pain of prosecution for trespass. Peering over the wall the prospective trespasser can see a tantalising glimpse of old tombs, stacked grave stones and what appears to be a crematoria. All very Hammer House of Horror. Why all this is out here on the moorland away from any major community remains to be explored. Just to add to the weirdness, three white albino peacocks appeared from nowhere, a common site on any Peak District moorland!

Onwards towards the south and heading for the mecca of Stanage Edge and High Neb trig point. It’s a nice walk up through woodland and moorland on to the high tops. My route followed the water conduit built by Victorian engineers to bring water to Sheffield. The conduit fed the Redmires reservoirs to the east. Dressed stone, beautifully detailed by craftsmen line the water coarse route and a small house like structure stands alone against the skyline.

The little house makes a great bivvy spot and seems to have been used as such. It even has a fire place for added cosiness.

Heading south I followed the coarse of the river upwards to reach High Neb trig point. A good spot for navigation practice. I calculated that my attack point was seven hundred meters away on a set bearing. This would lead me to a bend in the stream from where I could gain the trig point. Using the stream as a handrail I arrived at the attack point having paced the distance out over the rough moorland. I was just five paces short which pleased me no end.

Trig pillar number 3

(High Neb Triangulation Pillar SK 2281 8534   458m.  Benchmark S2157)

High Neb trig point sits right on the edge of Stanage in the center of a well worn path and with great views north, south, east and west.

The views from this vantage point are magnificent. Mam Tor, The great Ridge and Kinder Scout lay to the south west. Bleaklow and the Alport Valley fill the north west skyline, whilst Derwent and Howden edges run north. Below to the south and east lay the great grit stone edges famous to millions of climbers around the world. Pick a sunny day and theses edges are festooned with orange and red dots, the helmets of aspirant Don Whillans and Joe Browns. The names of the climbs conjour up emotions, Quietus, Right Unconquerable, Goliaths Groove, Chip Shop Brawl to name but a few on Stanage. You are stood on the balcony of climbing history and what better view could you have.

Head east along the edge and you come to The Long Causeway a ancient Pack Horse route for the transportation of grit stone mill wheels and salt to name but a few commodities. It has recently been the centre of some controversy, as it is legally a road and this means that any vehicle can travel along it. The four wheel drive brigade have done just that and ripped it apart. Where once there were beautiful stone sets paving the entire length, now there remains huge gouges, crumbling retaining walls and flooded mud baths. It is a crime and the only people responsible are the irresponsible four wheel drive and trial bike users, who have had no regard for this historical right of way, and only wanted self centred pleasure. Thankfully the Peak District Authority have acted and obtained a closure to all mechanical vehicles. Lets hope that it stays that way forever and hopefully the four by fours will be content with running the shopping to and from from Tesco’s.

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The Long Causeway on Stanage Edge.  History ripped apart by the pleasure seekers.

If you carry on along the edge you eventually come to a strange pole. This is Stanage Pole and the final trig point. Yes it is a trig point as marked on the 1:25000 OS map. Did you know that. Not all trig points are pillars.